In that state, two persons, Indutiomarus and Cingetorix, were then contending with each other for the supreme power; one of whom, as soon as the arrival of Caesar and his legions was known, came to him; assures him that he and all his party would continue in their allegiance, and not revolt from the alliance of the Roman people, and informs him of the things which were going on among the Treviri. The latter induces four princes of Cantium to attack the Romans, by whom they are defeated.—XXIII. The following day the enemy, having collected far greater forces, attack the camp [and] fill up the ditch. He sends the cavalry in first and orders the legions to follow; the Roman advance proves to be so swift that the enemy scatters in terror. Fortune so dealt with both in this rivalry and conflict, that the one competitor was a succor and a safeguard to the other, nor could it be determined which of the two appeared worthy of being preferred to the other. When the long, cumbersome Roman column moves into a deep ravine, they are attacked from both sides and the rear-totally trapped. He embarks with five legions and 2,000 horsemen, satisfied that another victory awaits him. He has more reason than to consider talking as Sabinus did; he is in a situation of disadvantage but sticks to an intelligent plan and refuses to leave his camp. Two of the centurions, Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus, are confirmed rivals and have long competed with each other during the fight. The Briton's method of using chariots — retreating, then fighting on foot — puts the Roman cavalry at a disadvantage. He gives high praise to the legion and especially to Cicero for his bravery; next day, he tells them of all that has happened, including the fate of Sabinus and Cotta, but the courage of their legions, he says, has made up for Sabinus' foolhardiness. When permission was granted, they recount the same things which Ambiorix had related to Titurius, namely, �that all Gaul was in arms, that the Germans had passed the Rhine, that the winter-quarters of Caesar and of the others were attacked.� They report in addition also, about the death of Sabinus. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. But Indutiomarus began to collect cavalry and infantry, and make preparations for war, having concealed those who by reason of their age could not be under arms, in the forest Arduenna, which is of immense size, [and] extends from the Rhine across the country of the Treviri to the frontiers of the Remi. Gaius Julius Caesar The Gallic Wars Book 4. He directs him, if he should be unable to enter, to throw his spear with the letter fastened to the thong, inside the fortifications of the camp. FREE TO TRY FOR 30 DAYS. He makes it as small as possible, hoping that the enemy will be so rash that their moves will be careless and prove fatal for them. There, Caesar learns firsthand of the crisis at Cicero's camp. XVI. Cicero himself, though he was in very weak health, did not leave himself the night-time for repose, so that he was forced to spare himself by the spontaneous movement and entreaties of the soldiers. Cassivellaunus next calls in forces from the other districts of Kent and attacks Caesar's naval camp, but is quickly put down by the Romans. Cotta, it is true, tries to save the fate of his legion — he at least seems to consider consequences — but, unfortunately, he cannot control the critical turn of events. When he had arrived there, he perceives that numerous forces of the enemy were marshaled on the other bank of the river; the bank also was defended by sharp stakes fixed in front, and stakes of the same kind fixed under the water were covered by the river. 4:1 The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. In the middle of this voyage, is an island, which is called Mona: many smaller islands besides are supposed to lie [there], of which islands some have written that at the time of the winter solstice it is night there for thirty consecutive days. The Gallic-type huts inside are straw-roofed and quickly catch fire. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. He himself, though the matter was one of great difficulty and labor, yet thought it to be most expedient for all the ships to be brought up on shore and joined with the camp by one fortification. His personal enemies had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related to Caesar. At an earlier period perpetual wars had taken place between him and the other states; but, greatly alarmed by our arrival, the Britons had placed him over the whole war and the conduct of it. When the fight was going on most vigorously before the fortifications, Pulfio, one of them, says, �Why do you hesitate, Varenus? 55 B.C. ReadCentral has helped thousands of people read books online without the … This episode might have resulted in a telling victory. emma_dalbo. Most of the inland inhabitants do not sow corn, but live on milk and flesh, and are clad with skins. Therefore he selects workmen from the legions, and orders others to be sent for from the continent; he writes to Labienus to build as many ships as he could with those legions which were with him. He plans the size and shape of them. He says he has been summoned by various Gallic states and that they will march through the land of the Remi, destroying as they go, and that they will attack Labienus' camp. Sabinus then orders the tribunes and senior centurions to follow him. From all these things he judges with what danger and with what great courage matters had been conducted; he commends Cicero according to his desert, and likewise the legion; he addresses individually the centurions and the tribunes of the soldiers, whose valor he had discovered to have been signal. For the disaster respecting the death of Sabinus having been circulated among them, almost all the states of Gaul were deliberating about war, sending messengers and embassies into all quarters, inquiring what further measure they should take, and holding councils by night in secluded places. 5 These matters being settled, Caesar went to port Itius with the legions. The council demands that the generals settle on one plan; danger, they insist, lies in disagreement and eventually it is Cotta who yields. At this point, a Nervian soldier persuades a slave, by promising him his freedom, to try and reach Caesar. Whether you need an overview of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries or a detailed summary of the book for a college project or just for fun, brings you the book-wise summaries of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries for free. Just as his men have sighted the enemy, Quintus Atrius sends word that a storm has damaged many of the ships, and Caesar commands the troops to defer attack. The Roman fleet suffers severely in a storm.—XI. No reply being given by our men, the enemy, when they thought proper, depart toward evening in a disorderly and scattered manner, Labienus unexpectedly sends out all the cavalry by two gates; he gives this command and prohibition, that, when the enemy should be terrified and put to flight (which he foresaw would happen, as it did), they should all make for Indutiomarus, and no one wound any man before he should have seen him slain, because he was unwilling that he should escape, in consequence of gaining time by the delay [occasioned by the pursuit] of the rest. This day was by far the most calamitous to our men; it had this result, however, that on that day the largest number of the enemy was wounded and slain, since they had crowded beneath the very rampart, and the hindmost did not afford the foremost a retreat. The number of the people is countless, and their buildings exceedingly numerous, for the most part very like those of the Gauls: the number of cattle is great. Dispute between Titurius and Cotta.—XXXII. Sabinus' plan to march is accepted and it is announced that the troops will march at dawn. The third side is toward the north, to which portion of the island no land is opposite; but an angle of that side looks principally toward Germany. The stratagem of Cassivellaunus.—XX. outnumbered almost nine to one, with the enemy having 60,000 troops to his 7,000, Caesar feigns fright as his foes press close to his camp. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. He offers great rewards for those who should kill him: he sends up the cohorts as a relief to the horse. LibriVox recording of De Bello Gallico Libri Septem, by Gaius Julius Caesar. Ambiorix says that Sabinus can parley with him and that he would like to keep the Rornans alive. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. This he carries out bound about his javelin; and mixing among the Gauls without any suspicion by being a Gaul, he reaches Caesar. The Romans arm themselves for fighting in close formation, but this proves ineffective against the British style of fighting. UNLIMITED BOOKS, ALL IN ONE PLACE. It is a disheartening situation, but the Romans stand firm, though many continue to be wounded. After hearing of Sabinus' defeat, almost all of the Gallic states begin to plan for war and, throughout the winter, Caesar receives reports of the brewing rebellion. The tribesmen have fortified a forest for war and hide in it, rushing out in small groups to battle. The rest of the army is too far away to help in time, so Caesar decides to use 400 horsemen from the nearest cantonments. Immediately the whole host turn from Pulfio to him, supposing the other to be pierced through by the javelin. Indutiomarus realizes that he has suffered a slight from the empire and his resentment smolders. And thus the whole state was at his control; and that he, if Caesar would permit, would come to the camp to him, and would commit his own fortunes and those of the state to his good faith. De Bello Gallico in Latin by Julius Caesar. He persuades his slave, by the hope of freedom, and by great rewards, to convey a letter to Caesar. 9 Caesar, having disembarked his army and chosen a convenient place for the camp, when he discovered from the prisoners in what part the forces of the enemy had lodged themselves, having left ten cohorts and 300 horse at the sea, to be a guard to the ships, hastens to the enemy, at the third watch, fearing the less for the ships, for this reason because he was leaving them fastened at anchor upon an even and open shore; and he placed Q. Atrius over the guard of the ships. 55 But the Triviri and Indutiomarus let no part of the entire winter pass without sending embassadors across the Rhine, importuning the states, promising money, and asserting that, as a large portion of our army had been cut off, a much smaller portion remained. He easily gains over the Nervii by this speech. Remembering his ships' difficulties during the campaigns against the Veneti and the landing in Britain, Caesar decides to make his new ships of shallower draft than the older ones so that they can maneuver closer to shore. This side is considered to be 800 miles in length. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Then the smoke of the fires was seen in the distance, a circumstance which banished all doubt of the arrival of the legions. The enemy also refuses to fight closely, spreads out, and has small parties relieve one another as they grow tired. courtneydunne. Indutiomarus, in panic, sends a message to Caesar saying that he intends to keep order among the groups under him and prevent the common people from succumbing to indirection. De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries summary and study guide are … Caesar is puzzled, then orders the Seventh Legion to form a "tortoise" formation and drive the enemy from the woods and into the open. This report having been carried to the Treviri, Indutiomarus, who had resolved to attack the camp of Labienus the following day, flies by night and leads back all his forces into the country of the Treviri. Book VI. He is impressed by the towers and fortifications the enemy has erected but is shocked and saddened to find that nine-tenths of Cicero's troops are wounded. Our men making an attack on them vigorously, repulsed them; nor did they cease to pursue them until the horse, relying on relief, as they saw the legions behind them, drove the enemy precipitately before them, and slaying a great number of them, did not give them the opportunity either of rallying, or halting, or leaping from their chariots. He left what seemed a sufficient number of soldiers for that design; he himself proceeds into the territories of the Treviri with four legions without baggage, and 800 horse, because they neither came to the general diets [of Gaul], nor obeyed his commands, and were moreover, said to be tampering with the Germans beyond the Rhine. Three more, under Marcus Crassus, Lucius Munatius Plancus and Gaius Trebonius are sent among the Belgae. Soon they see smoke from burning villages and fields and know that the general is coming. Caesar's details here make vividly clear to his readers the individual characteristics of his new enemy; he never fights a vague, unknown warring force. Ten and even twelve have wives common to them, and particularly brothers among brothers, and parents among their children; but if there be any issue by these wives, they are reputed to be the children of those by whom respectively each was first espoused when a virgin. Tin is produced in the midland, and iron on the coast; bronze is imported. New for the AP® Latin Examination! Caesar Book 5 Summary 34 Terms. And this, though it was small in itself, [there being] scarcely 7,000 men, and these too without baggage, still by the narrowness of the passages, he contracts as much as he can, with this object, that he may come into the greatest contempt with the enemy. That evening, the Gauls begin to depart in no particular order, and, at a signal, Labienus dispatches his cavalry out the two gates with orders, that, when the enemy panics and runs, they should first make for Indutiomarus and kill him. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. It is proclaimed that they will march at day-break; the remainder of the night is spent without sleep, since every soldier was inspecting his property, [to see] what he could carry with him, and what, out of the appurtenances of the winter-quarters, he would be compelled to leave; every reason is suggested to show why they could not stay without danger, and how that danger would be increased by the fatigue of the soldiers and their want of sleep. The new ones, however, he explains, are to be built differently than the others; they will be lower and wider than usual so that cargo and animals can be more easily carried and unloaded. There is joy, though, as Cicero reads the message and he rouses his troops to new courage. There he learns from some prisoners what things are going on in the camp of Cicero, and in how great jeopardy the affair is. De Bello Alexandrino (also Bellum Alexandrinum; On the Alexandrine War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili. The Nervii agree and send messages to the tribes under them asking for troops. After this defeat, many of the tribes quit the defense of Britain and the enemy strength is greatly diminished. In the whole of this method of fighting since the engagement took place under the eyes of all and before the camp, it was perceived that our men, on account of the weight of their arms, inasmuch as they could neither pursue [the enemy when] retreating, nor dare quit their standards, were little suited to this kind of enemy; that the horse also fought with great danger, because they [the Britons] generally retreated even designedly, and, when they had drawn off our men a short distance from the legions, leaped from their chariots and fought on foot in unequal [and to them advantageous] battle. More messages, meanwhile, continue to be sent to Caesar, but the bearers continue to be captured, tortured, and killed within sight of the camp. Ignorant of the real seriousness of his plight, he defends his position as best he can, first repairing weak spots in the walls and setting up 120 defense towers during the night Next morning his troops face large enemy forces and in the days following they continue the resistance. He, of course, is murdered. Caesar, since he had determined to pass the winter on the continent, on account of the sudden revolts of Gaul, and as much of the summer did not remain, and he perceived that even that could be easily protracted, demands hostages, and prescribes what tribute Britain should pay each year to the Roman people; he forbids and commands Cassivellaunus that he wage not war against Mandubratius or the Trinobantes. The ruler of the Carnutes had been Tasgetius, a descendant of former kings and a man who helped Rome in the past; Caesar had declared him ruler, but after a two-year reign, he was killed by enemies within the state. A strong wind whips at the Romans on the seventh day and the enemy takes advantage of it, hurling hot clay pellets and burning darts. Dumnorix, who was to have been in that number, by craft and violence, escapes attending Caesar, but is slain.—VII. Book 6 Chapter 5.24 SubductÄ«s nāvibus, conciliōque Gallōrum SamarobrÄ«vae perāctō, quod eō annō frÅ«mentum in Galliā propter siccitātēs angustius prōvēnerat, coāctus est aliter āc superiōribus annÄ«s exercitum in hÄ«bernÄ«s collocāre, legiōnēsque in plÅ«rēs cÄ«vitātēs distribuere. Cotta and the others oppose Sabinus, and Sabinus seemingly consents to their pressuring arguments, but tells them that if they are wrong that the troops will need an explanation. He witnesses with surprise the towers, mantelets, and [other] fortifications belonging to the enemy: the legion having been drawn out, he finds that even every tenth soldier had not escaped without wounds. The enemy soldiers brazenly advance until they meet the Roman rampart and there many are killed — mainly because so many of their own troops are behind them that they cannot withdraw. When they near Ambiorix, they are told to put down their arms and while Ambiorix discusses peace with Sabinus, they are all surrounded and killed. There he discovers that forty ships, which had been built in the country of the Meldi, having been driven back by a storm, had been unable to maintain their course, and had returned to the same port from which they had set out; he finds the rest ready for sailing, and furnished with every thing. For the present, therefore, inasmuch as he knew that Cicero was released from the blockade, and thought that he might, on that account, relax his speed, he halted there and fortifies a camp in the most favorable position he can. Together they kill several enemy soldiers, then hurry back inside their lines. But the enemy, after some time had elapsed, when our men were off their guard, and occupied in the fortification of the camp, rushed out of the woods, and making an attack upon those who were placed on duty before the camp, fought in a determined manner; and two cohorts being sent by Caesar to their relief, and these severally the first of two legions, when these had taken up their position at a very small distance from each other, as our men were disconcerted by the unusual mode of battle, the enemy broke through the middle of them most courageously, and retreated thence in safety. Totally surprised, the enemy turns and tries to run but are killed. But Caesar forbade his men to pursue them in their flight any great distance; both because he was ignorant of the nature of the ground, and because, as a great part of the day was spent, he wished time to be left for the fortification of the camp. The climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. Ambiorix, when he observed this, orders the command to be issued that they throw their weapons from a distance and do not approach too near, and in whatever direction the Romans should make an attack, there give way (from the lightness of their appointments and from their daily practice no damage could be done them); [but] pursue them when betaking themselves to their standards again. They speedily performed the things demanded, and sent hostages to the number appointed, and the corn. In the mean time, that part of the Roman army, of necessity, was left unprotected, and the weapons received on their open flank. Cotta is killed, along with most of his troops. It is Labienus who finishes Indutiomarns' defeat. Many Britons are killed simply because there is no time for them to get out of their chariots. Caesar sends Fabius and his legion back to their cantonment and decides to spend the winter in Gaul. In the mean time, Indutiomarus, with all his cavalry, nearly every day used to parade close to his [Labienus�] camp; at one time, that he might inform himself of the situation of the camp; at another time, for the purpose of conferring with or of intimidating him. Returning to the narrative, Caesar relates the circumstances of a surprise attack. Indutiomarus and Cingetorix.—V. Their parley unsuccessful, the Nervii surround the Roman camp with a rampart nine feet high and a trench fifteen feet wide, a technique they have learned from the Romans. BOOK 1 Chapter 1 All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. 22 While these things are going forward in those places, Cassivellaunus sends messengers into Kent, which, we have observed above, is on the sea, over which districts four several kings reigned, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax, and commands them to collect all their forces, and unexpectedly assail and storm the naval camp. The contrast between the brave hut cautious Cotta and the foolhardy Sabinus is intentional; one acts like a fool, the other like a soldier. That day he is able to move twenty miles and at sundown further plans are made: Crassus is left with a legion to take care of Samarobriva, the baggage, hostages, documents, and winter food supply. They are sure that the unimportant Eburones would not dare make war alone, but Cotta and several tribunes and centurions are also sure that they should not leave without an order from Caesar. This side extends about 500 miles. In disguise this slave, it is hoped, will be able to pass as one of the Gauls and carry a message to Caesar concealed in a spear shaft. The valor and conduct of Cotta.—XXXVIII.-XLII. Because there are so many prisoners and soldiers, however, Caesar must make two trips. Cicero is confronted by the same story Ambiorix presented Sabinus, but he refuses to talk to an enemy under arms. They do not regard it lawful to eat the hare, and the cock, and the goose; they, however, breed them for amusement and pleasure. They explain that what they want is Cicero's departure; they cannot abide Roman troops in the area during the winter. He writes to Labienus to come with his legion to the frontiers of the Nervii, if he could do so to the advantage of the commonwealth: he does not consider that the remaining portion of the army, because it was somewhat further distant, should be waited for; but assembles about 400 horse from the nearest winter-quarters. The legions being distributed in this manner, he thought he could most easily remedy the scarcity of corn and yet the winter-quarters of all these legions (except that which he had given to L. Roscius, to be led into the most peaceful and tranquil neighborhood) were comprehended within [about] 100 miles. Slowly, he grows stronger and soon various states are asking to join with him. In that council he declares Cingetorix, the leader of the other faction, his own son-in-law (whom we have above mentioned, as having embraced the protection of Caesar, and never having deserted him) an enemy and confiscates his property. First he slows his march and entrenches a camp. The survivors kill each other during the night to avoid being brutally murdered by the enemy. This is more than even the usually lenient Caesar can tolerate and when, prior to sailing, Dumnorix escapes, Caesar sends his cavalry after the traitor with orders to kill him if necessary. The enemy, having remained only a short time, did not sustain the attack of our soldiers, and hurried away on the other side of the town. Indutiomarus, it is true, after the battle with Caesar, assembles another army and attempts to take Labienus' camp, but Labienus uses Caesar's gambit of appearing afraid and, in addition, assembles a cavalry force so that his surprise is of double strength. Irtaza_Fiaz. Is by chance stuck in a tower, and, not being observed by our men for two days, was seen by a certain soldier on the third day: when taken down, it was carried to Cicero. from which, if immediate danger was not to be dreaded, yet certainly famine, by a protracted siege, was.� and any corresponding bookmarks? Ambiorix tells the Roman representatives that he is much indebted to Caesar and does not wish to make war but that he has been forced to do so by the people of his state. When the Gallic tribes rebel and destroy part of Caesar's legion, he vows to get revenge on the leader, Ambiorix. 56 When he perceived that they were coming to him voluntarily; that on the one side the Senones and the Carnutes were stimulated by their consciousness of guilt, on the other side the Nervii and the Aduatuci were preparing war against the Romans, and that forces of volunteers would not be wanting to him if he began to advance from his own territories, he proclaims an armed council (this according to the custom of the Gauls in the commencement of war) at which, by a common law, all the youth were wont to assemble in arms, whoever of them comes last is killed in the sight of the whole assembly after being racked with every torture. Two weeks later, disorder breaks out. When this letter was brought to him about the middle of the night, Caesar apprises his soldiers of its contents, and inspires them with courage for fighting: the following day, at the dawn, he moves his camp, and, having proceeded four miles, he espies the forces of the enemy on the other side of a considerable valley and rivulet. Ambiorix is elated with his victory and sets out with his cavalry to arouse the Aduatuci and Nervii. Then Caesar, making a sally from all the gates, and sending out the cavalry, soon puts the enemy to flight, so that no one at all stood his ground with the intention of fighting; and he slew a great number of them, and deprived all of their arms. The remainder limp back inside the camp, and Lucius Petrosidius, the standard bearer, manages to throw his flag inside the camp before he is killed. He then proclaims an armed convention, marking the beginning of war. There, droughts have diminished the grain supply and Caesar is forced to distribute his legions over several states. I. Caesar orders a large fleet of peculiarly constructed ships to be built; proceeds against the Pirustae; they submit.—II. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. The Romans are in trouble immediately and Sabinus panics. He tells them that finally they have a chance to rid themselves of the Romans. The Gaul apprehending danger, throws his spear as he has been directed. Each day fewer defenders are left. When Caesar got proconsul of Gallia and Illyria in 58 B.C, the conquest of land in Gaul was an urgent need, both to improve his political standing and to calm his creditors in Rome. And when the Romans return, the enemy attacks on two sides. They point to Ambiorix for the purpose of obtaining credence; �they are mistaken,� say they, �if they hoped for any relief from those who distrust their own affairs; that they bear such feelings toward Cicero and the Roman people that they deny them nothing but winter-quarters, and are unwilling that the practice should become constant; that through their [the Nervii�s] means it is possible for them [the Romans] to depart from their winter-quarters safely and to proceed without fear into whatever parts they desire.� To these Cicero made only one reply: �that it is not the custom of the Roman people to accept any condition from an armed enemy: if they are willing to lay down their arms, they may employ him as their advocate and send embassadors to Caesar: that he believed, from his [Caesar�s] justice, they would obtain the things which they might request.� When the Romans are building camp and are off-guard, he writes, the enemy dashes from the woods and attacks the outposts. He fearing, because several were involved in the act, that the state might revolt at their instigation, orders Lucius Plancus, with a legion, to proceed quickly from Belgium to the Carnutes, and winter there, and arrest and send to him the persons by whose instrumentality he should discover that Tasgetius was slain. Caesar, meanwhile, destroys as many fields and buildings as he can as he marches through the area. The conflict is more than a skirmish; it is of major proportions, for Trebonius has three legions, plus his cavalry with him — in all 15,000 to 17,000 men. Being repulsed by our cavalry, they concealed themselves in woods, as they had secured a place admirably fortified by nature and by art, which, as it seemed, they had before prepared on account of a civil war; for all entrances to it were shut up by a great number of felled trees. These animals they keep as pets. These all differ in language, customs, laws between themselves. He himself in the mean while, until he had stationed the legions and knew that the several winter-quarters were fortified, determined to stay in Gaul. The battle lasts from dawn until evening and when the causalities are counted, it is discovered that among them is Titus Balventius, chief centurion of his legion. Once more, Gaul is peaceful. Varenus rushes on briskly with his sword and carries on the combat hand to hand, and having slain one man, for a short time drove back the rest: while he urges on too eagerly, slipping into a hollow, he fell. 7 Having learned this fact, Caesar, because he had conferred so much honor upon the Aeduan state, determined that Dumnorix should be restrained and deterred by whatever means he could; and that, because he perceived his insane designs to be proceeding further and further, care should be taken lest he might be able to injure him and the commonwealth. Caesar learns of the assassination and fears revolt, so he orders Lucius Plancus to move his legion from the land of the Belgae to the land of the Carnutes for the winter. To him Caesar had restored the position of his ancestors, in consideration of his prowess and attachment toward him, because in all his wars he had availed himself of his valuable services. bookmarked pages associated with this title. 42 Disappointed in this hope, the Nervii surround the winter-quarters with a rampart eleven feet high, and a ditch thirteen feet in depth. If he and his men, therefore, stay where they are, they might find themselves without food. Thither he proceeds with his legions: he finds the place admirably fortified by nature and art; he, however, undertakes to attack it in two directions. The enemy soldiers retreat and Caesar captures many cattle and also manages to kill many of the enemy. A great amount of cattle was found there, and many of the enemy were taken and slain in their flight. Nor does Varenus remain within the rampart, but respecting the high opinion of all, follows close after. He suggests that the envoys put down their weapons; then, perhaps, they might get what they desire but first Caesar must be consulted. Then with great rewards he induces a certain man of the Gallic horse to convey a letter to Cicero. 6:1 Caesar, expecting for many reasons a greater commotion in Gaul, resolves to hold a levy by the means of M. Silanus C. Antistius Reginus, and T. Sextius, his lieutenants: at the same time he requested Cn. Caesar then calls together the various chiefs and frightens some of them by revealing his knowledge of their plans. 37 Sabinus orders those tribunes of the soldiers whom he had at the time around him, and the centurions of the first ranks, to follow him, and when he had approached near to Ambiorix, being ordered to throw down his arms, he obeys the order and commands his men to do the same. Again, when they had begun to return to that place from which they had advanced, they were surrounded both by those who had retreated and by those who stood next them; but if, on the other hand, they wish to keep their place, neither was an opportunity left for valor, nor could they, being crowded together, escape the weapons cast by so large a body of men. 40 Letters are immediately sent to Caesar by Cicero, great rewards being offered [to the messengers] if they carried them through. Caesar has the Trinobantes send him hostages and grain and he grants their request. After he saw that this request was firmly refused him, all hope of success being lost, he began to tamper with the chief persons of the Gauls, to call them apart singly and exhort them to remain on the continent; to agitate them with the fear that it was not without reason that Gaul should be stripped of all her nobility; that it was Caesar�s design, to bring over to Britain and put to death all those whom he feared to slay in the sight of Gaul, to pledge his honor to the rest, to ask for their oath that they would by common deliberation execute what they should perceive to be necessary for Gaul. The Trinobantes, the strongest state in the area, ask Caesar for protection and also plead with him to send them Mandubracius as ruler. 4 Caesar, though he discerned from what motive these things were said, and what circumstances deterred him from his meditated plan, still, in order that he might not be compelled to waste the summer among the Treviri, while all things were prepared for the war with Britain, ordered Indutiomarus to come to him with 200 hostages. In addition, he provides that they be propelled both by oars and sails. 15 The horse and charioteers of the enemy contended vigorously in a skirmish with our cavalry on the march; yet so that our men were conquerors in all parts, and drove them to their woods and hills; but, having slain a great many, they pursued too eagerly, and lost some of their men. The Senones try to murder the king whom Caesar has appointed, but luckily the king hears of their plans and manages to escape. Gaius Fabius takes a legion to the Morini, Quintus Cicero takes one to the Nervii, Lucius Roscius takes one to the Esubii, and Titus Labienus takes another to the Remi. The Gauls and Germans, he feels, have various reasons for wanting to get even with Rome and if the Gauls and Germans are jointly armed, their best chance for victory is a quick move to the next legion. The defeat destroys Indutiomarus' plans but Caesar wants to make sure that the enemy does not reorganize. Finally departing, after a long period of waiting for fair weather, Caesar leaves Labienus on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horsemen to guard the port and to maintain the grain supply. It was an affair of great danger to fight with such large forces in a disadvantageous situation. 47 Having been apprised of the arrival of Crassus by the scouts at about the third hour, he advances twenty miles that day. The enemy following up their success with a very loud shout, as if victory were already obtained and secured, began to advance their towers and mantelets, and climb the rampart with ladders. Further, he assures Sabinus that no harm will come to him and Sabinus, in turn, asks Cotta if he will agree to stop fighting and parley. In the same place, the cavalry of the whole of Gaul, in number 4,000, assembles, and [also] the chief persons of all the states; he had determined to leave in Gaul a very few of them, whose fidelity toward him he had clearly discerned, and take the rest with him as hostages; because he feared a commotion in Gaul when he should be absent. Caesar, accepting their defense, demands hostages, and orders them to be brought to him on a specified day, and assures them that unless they did so he would visit their state with war. Caesar's maneuver succeeds: seeing no Romans on the rampart, the enemy advance and fire missiles, then announce that anyone who comes over to their side before the final hour may do so without danger, but that after that time, there will be no mercy. Rebekahgracew. He explains that he cannot refuse to follow his fellow Gauls, but now feels that he has fulfilled his responsibility to them. See GAIUS SUETONIUS TRANQUILLUS, Julius Caesar, in THE TWELVE CAESARS, § 56 at 34 (Robert Graves trans., 1975) ("Hirtius, who finished 'The Gallic War', left incomplete by Caesar, add[ed] a final book. Cicero is astonished; he has not even heard of the defeat of Sabinus' legion. Caesar travels twelve miles before he sees any of the natives, and his first skirmish with them is rather curious. 24 The ships having been drawn up and a general assembly of the Gauls held at Samarobriva, because the corn that year had not prospered in Gaul by reason of the droughts, he was compelled to station his army in its winter-quarters differently from the former years, and to distribute the legions among several states: one of them he gave to C. Fabius, his lieutenant, to be marched into the territories of the Morini; a second to Q. Cicero, into those of the Nervii; a third to L. Roscius, into those of the Essui; a fourth he ordered to winter with T. Labienus among the Remi in the confines of the Treviri; he stationed three in Belgium; over these he appointed M. Crassus, his questor, and L. Munatius Plancus and C. Trebonius, his lieutenants. Others he woos as friends. He tells the Nervii that it will be easy to attack the legion wintering with Cicero. Having related the exploit and roused the Aduatuci, the next day he arrived among the Nervii, and entreats �that they should not throw away the opportunity of liberating themselves forever and of punishing the Romans for those wrongs which they had received from them;� [he tells them] �that two lieutenants have been slain, and that a large portion of the army has perished; that it was not a matter of difficulty for the legion which was wintering with Cicero to be cut off, when suddenly assaulted; he declares himself ready to cooperate in that design. Caesar marches to the relief of Cicero; defeats the Eburones.—LIII. Immediately after this retreat, the auxiliaries who had assembled from all sides, departed; nor after that time did the enemy ever engage with us in very large numbers. He returns to inspect the fleet and finds that forty ships have been totally destroyed; the others, he believes, can be repaired. Accordingly, the speech of Indutiomarus, which he had delivered in the council, having been made known [to him] by Cingetorix and his allies, he sends messengers to the neighboring states and summons horse from all quarters: he appoints to them a fixed day for assembling. Cotta says he will not go to an armed enemy, and in that perseveres. The coastal farms are like those of the Gauls and they keep many cattle. Which circumstance having been reported [to them], the Pirustae send embassadors to him to inform him that no part of those proceedings was done by public deliberation, and assert that they were ready to make compensation by all means for the injuries [inflicted]. Ambiorix quickly tells his troops to keep at a safe distance in case of another Roman charge. And I do not know whether that ought much to be wondered at, as well for several other reasons, as particularly because they who ranked above all nations for prowess in war, most keenly regretted that they had lost so much of that reputation as to submit to commands from the Roman people. Labienus, having learned the death of Sabinus and the destruction of the cohorts, as all the forces of the Treviri had come against him, beginning to fear lest, if he made a departure from his winter-quarters, resembling a flight, he should not be able to support the attack of the enemy, particularly since he knew them to be elated by their recent victory, sends back a letter to Caesar, informing him with what great hazard he would lead out his legion from winter-quarters; he relates at large the affairs which had taken place among the Eburones; he informs him that all the infantry and cavalry of the Treviri had encamped at a distance of only three miles from his own camp. Accordingly, they refer the matter to a council, and a great controversy arises among them. The enemy then move in as if victory were already in their hands; the Romans, however, keep their heads, ignore the flames and continue fighting. 25 There was among the Carnutes a man named Tasgetius, born of very high rank, whose ancestors had held the sovereignty in his state. The mission is successful; Caesar does receive the message late in the day and in turn sends a quick message to Crassus, twenty-five miles away, instructing him to start at midnight and join Caesar's troops. He proclaims Cingetorix, his son-in-law who had refused to desert Caesar, an enemy and confiscates his goods. 41 Then these leaders and chiefs of the Nervii, who had any intimacy and grounds of friendship with Cicero, say they desire to confer with him. Still, however, they resent having their actions made defensive by the enemy. However, none of the German States could be induced to cross the Rhine, since �they had twice essayed it,� they said, �in the war with Ariovistus and in the passage of the Tenchtheri there; that fortune was not to be tempted any more.� Indutiomarus disappointed in this expectation, nevertheless began to raise troops, and discipline them, and procure horses from the neighboring people, and allure to him by great rewards the outlaws and convicts throughout Gaul. 8 When these things were done [and] Labienus left on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horse, to defend the harbors and provide corn, and discover what was going on in Gaul, and take measures according to the occasion and according to the circumstance; he himself, with five legions and a number of horse, equal to that which he was leaving on the continent, set sail at sun-set, and [though for a time] borne forward by a gentle south-west wind, he did not maintain his course, in consequence of the wind dying away about midnight, and being carried on too far by the tide, when the sun rose, espied Britain passed on his left. 34 But judgment was not wanting to the barbarians; for their leaders ordered [the officers] to proclaim through the ranks �that no man should quit his place; that the booty was theirs, and for them was reserved whatever the Romans should leave; therefore let them consider that all things depended on their victory. 11 These things being known [to him], Caesar orders the legions and cavalry to be recalled and to cease from their march; he himself returns to the ships: he sees clearly before him almost the same things which he had heard of from the messengers and by letter, so that, about forty ships being lost, the remainder seemed capable of being repaired with much labor. Caesar sends two experienced cohorts to support his troops, but the enemy breaks through and escapes. Tasgetius.—XXVI. ‎Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The new ones, however, he explains, are to be built differently than the others; they will be lower and wider than usual so that cargo and animals can be more easily carried and unloaded. from your Reading List will also remove any 5 These matters being settled, Caesar went to port Itius with the legions. The enemy hears the sounds of preparations and sets up an ambush two miles away. He, when addressed, replied, �If he wishes to confer with him, it was permitted; that he hoped what pertained to the safety of the soldiers could be obtained from the people; that to him however certainly no injury would be done, and that he pledged his faith to that effect.� He consults with Cotta, who had been wounded, whether it would appear right to retire from battle, and confer with Ambiorix; [saying] that he hoped to be able to succeed respecting his own and the soldiers� safety. Lucius Roscius, for example, in command of the Thirteenth Legion, tells him that a large force of Gauls from the Amoric states intend to attack him, but finally give up the idea when they hear of Caesar's most recent victory. ... Video SparkNotes: Charles Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities summary - Duration: 18:02. While reading the Commentaries, it is well to note the vast numbers involved. At length, each thigh of T. Balventius, who the year before had been chief centurion, a brave man and one of great authority, is pierced with a javelin; Q. Lucanius, of the same rank, fighting most valiantly, is slain while he assists his son when surrounded by the enemy; L. Cotta, the lieutenant, when encouraging all the cohorts and companies, is wounded full in the mouth by a sling. Finally the tower catches fire. The message, written in Greek, says that Caesar is on the way and to continue the resistance. But at noon, when Caesar had sent three legions, and all the cavalry, with C. Trebonius, the lieutenant, for the purpose of foraging, they flew upon the foragers suddenly from all quarters, so that they did not keep off [even] from the standards and the legions. 43 On the seventh day of the attack, a very high wind having sprung up, they began to discharge by their slings hot balls made of burned or hardened clay, and heated javelins, upon the huts, which, after the Gallic custom, were thatched with straw. Description of Britain and its inhabitants.—XVII. Returns into Hither Gaul; marches against the Treviri.—III. We, in our inquiries about that matter, ascertained nothing, except that, by accurate measurements with water, we perceived the nights to be shorter there than on the continent. He, however, when recalled, began to resist and defend himself with his hand, and implore the support of his people, often exclaiming that �he was free and the subject of a free state.� They surround and kill the man as they had been commanded; but the Aeduan horsemen all return to Caesar. Next day, small parties begin attack on the Roman horsemen. The rest of the army he takes to meet the Britons. Cingetorix, seizing an opportunity, comes to Caesar and professes friendship for Rome. Caesar accepts their explanation, tells them to bring hostages, and appoints arbitrators to arrange for payment of both penalty and damages. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. These having been entrapped, the Eburones, the Nervii, and the Aduatici and all their allies and dependents, begin to attack the legion: our men quickly run together to arms and mount the rampart; they sustained the attack that day with great difficulty, since the enemy placed all their hope in dispatch, and felt assured that, if they obtained this victory, they would be conquerors forever. But this seems a parallel for another kind of contrast in the book — the contrast between Sabinus and Cicero. 50 That day, slight skirmishes of cavalry having taken place near the river, both armies kept in their own positions: the Gauls, because they were awaiting larger forces which had not then arrived; Caesar, [to see] if perchance by pretense of fear he could allure the enemy toward his position, so that he might engage in battle, in front of his camp, on this side of the valley; if he could not accomplish this, that, having inquired about the passes, he might cross the valley and the river with the less hazard. Quickly, then, the enemy leader is killed and beheaded and the cavalry pursues and kills as many soldiers as possible. 29 In opposition to those things, Titurius exclaimed, �That they would do this too late, when greater forces of the enemy, after a junction with the Germans, should have assembled; or when some disaster had been received in the neighboring winter-quarters; that the opportunity for deliberating was short; that he believed that Caesar had set forth into Italy, as the Carnutes would not otherwise have taken the measure of slaying Tasgetius, nor would the Eburones, if he had been present, have come to the camp with so great defiance of us; that he did not regard the enemy, but the fact, as the authority; that the Rhine was near; that the death of Ariovistus and our previous victories were subjects of great indignation to the Germans; that Gaul was inflamed, that after having received so many defeats she was reduced under the sway of the Roman people, her pristine glory in military matters being extinguished.� Lastly, �who would persuade himself of this, that Ambiorix had resorted to a design of that nature without sure grounds? Cicero, an opportunity being now afforded, again begs of that Vertico, the Gaul, whom we mentioned above, to convey back a letter to Caesar; he advises him to perform his journey warily; he writes in the letter that the enemy had departed and had turned their entire force against him. At the port Caesar finds all of the expected ships, save the sixty which had been held back by bad weather. He receives information of the death of Sabinus and Cotta from the prisoners. 54 But Caesar, having summoned to him the principal persons of each state, in one case by alarming them, since he declared that he knew what was going on, and in another case by encouraging them, retained a great part of Gaul in its allegiance. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications. Caesar moves to the territorial borders of Cassivellaunus at the river Thames because that river can be crossed on foot at one place only, and it is there that the enemy forces assemble. Book 8 84 6.1.9 Summary of the results of the analysis of the excerpts from De Bello Gallico 87 6.2. Indutiomarus was very much offended at this act, [seeing that] his influence was diminished among his countrymen; and he, who already before had borne a hostile mind toward us, was much more violently inflamed against us through resentment at this. Cotta, on the other hand, has been suspicious and so remains calm. Now available as eText! Quintus Lucanius, also a chief centurion, has been butchered while trying to save his son. 6 There was together with the others, Dumnorix, the Aeduan, of whom we have made previous mention. Then they shouted, according to their custom, that some of our men should go forward to a conference, [alleging] that they had some things which they desired to say respecting the common interest, by which they trusted their disputes could be removed. Probably, he decides, troops have been there, but they have no doubt been frightened by the sight of the massive Roman fleet. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. or what [better] opportunity of signalizing your valor do you seek? The Senones, however, which is a state eminently powerful and one of great influence among the Gauls, attempting by general design to slay Cavarinus, whom Caesar had created king among them (whose brother, Moritasgus, had held the sovereignty at the period of the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, and whose ancestors had also previously held it), when he discovered their plot and fled, pursued him even to the frontiers [of the state], and drove him from his kingdom and his home; and, after having sent embassadors to Caesar for the purpose of concluding a peace, when he ordered all their senate to come to him, did not obey that command. Written by David Perry, this new text introduces intermediate and advanced students to Caesar’s De Bello Gallico.. A Call to Conquest contains all the readings on the Advanced Placement ® Latin Examination from Books 1, 4, 5, and 6. Caesar moves for the stronghold, a thick woodland with natural barriers in addition to those built by the enemy, and attacks from two sides. He then sends his cavalry and foot soldiers out in a sudden charge. Before leaving, loose ends must be tied: Caesar must pacify the Treveri by settling their political difficulties and, too, he must make sure that Indutiomarus, who is hostile to Rome, has insufficient strength to rebel during the troops' absence. Ambiorix and Catuvolcus, induced by Indutiomarus of the Treveri, attack a detachment of Romans who are gathering wood, then attack the main camp and are effective until the Roman cavalry arrives. Now you can read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries free from the comfort of your computer or mobile phone and enjoy other many other free books by Julius Caesar. Notice, for example, the great size of Caesar's fleet. Caesar, anxious to return to the continent, asks for hostages and sets the yearly tribute that the tribes of Britain must pay Rome. HÄ« omnēs linguā, Ä«nstitÅ«tÄ«s, (4) lēgibus inter sē diff erunt. 58 Since Indutiomarus was daily advancing up to the camp with greater defiance, all the cavalry of the neighboring states which he [Labienus] had taken care to have sent for, having been admitted in one night, he confined all his men within the camp by guards with such great strictness, that that fact could by no means be reported or carried to the Treviri. But Cotta, who had reflected that these things might occur on the march, and on that account had not been an adviser of the departure, was wanting to the common safety in no respect; both in addressing and encouraging the soldiers, he performed the duties of a general, and in the battle those of a soldier. The Gauls, about 60,000 strong, turn to meet the Romans, and Cicero dispatches a lightning swift lad to Caesar, warning him that the enemy has turned in a great tide and is rushing toward him. The short anecdotes concerning the competitive bravery of Pullo and Vorenus and the gallant gesture by Petrosidius are the sort of thing Caesar inserts from time to time to remind us that, though leaders make the plans, it is the officers and men of the line who actually fight the battles and whose individual bravery often makes the difference between failure and success. He instructs them to assemble at the Itian port nearest Britain, about thirty miles away, then takes four legions and 800 horsemen to the Treveri, who had not come to councils or obeyed his commands and who are reportedly stirring unrest among the Germans. In the mean time, he was apprised by all the lieutenants and questors to whom he had assigned the legions, that they had arrived in winter-quarters, and that the place for the quarters was fortified. De Bello Gallico by Caio Júlio César. Caesar cannot believe the man but, because he is anxious to get to Britain, he asks Indutiomarns to bring 200 hostages. 31 They rise from the council, detain both, and entreat, that �they do not bring the matter into the greatest jeopardy by their dissension and obstinacy; the affair was an easy one, if only they all thought and approved of the same thing, whether they remain or depart; on the other hand, they saw no security in dissension.� The matter is prolonged by debate till midnight. Back in Gaul a council is held at Samarobriva (Amiens). 36 Much troubled by these events, Q. Titurius, when he had perceived Ambiorix in the distance encouraging his men, sends to him his interpreter, Cn. Read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries online by Julius Caesar at, the free online library full of thousands of classic books. Also note the multitude of soldiers involved in the battle between the Britons and Trebonius' foraging crew. All rights reserved. I. Caesar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, ... 5 This part of Gaul having been tranquilized, he applies himself entirely both in mind and soul to the war with the Treviri and Ambiorix. The Pirustae hear of his presence and send representatives, who explain that the raids were not the result of public decision. Yet, though assailed by so many disadvantages, [and] having received many wounds, they withstood the enemy, and, a great portion of the day being spent, though they fought from day-break till the eighth hour, they did nothing which was unworthy of them. His rival runs up to him and succors him in this emergency. The enemy then charges the remaining body of the Romans. The work is carried on incessantly in the night: not even to the sick, or wounded, is opportunity given for rest: whatever things are required for resisting the assault of the next day are provided during the night: many stakes burned at the end, and a large number of mural pikes are procured: towers are built up, battlements and parapets are formed of interwoven hurdles. He himself, on the assizes of Hither Gaul being concluded, proceeds into Illyricum, because he heard that the part of the province nearest them was being laid waste by the incursions of the Pirustae. 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